THE Zimbabwe Independent, which has over the years been investigating the goings-on at Marange diamond fields, carries the fifth instalment of the latest Global Witness report Financing A Parallel Government? which makes interesting revelations about Chiadzwa. This week the report by the UK-based non-governmental organisation which campaigns against natural resources-related conflict, corruption and associated environmental and human rights abuses, looks at Anjin’s shareholding records it describes as “revealing” in that Matt Bronze, which owns shares in Anjin, is suspected of being a front for the Zimbabwean Ministry of Defence, military and police. The Global Witness report sheds light on activities unfolding at Marange diamond fields.
Canadile soon collapsed and its concession was taken over by Marange Resources (Pvt) Ltd, wholly-owned by the parastatal Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation (ZMDC). Press reports indicate that the new chair of Marange Resources is retired colonel Tshinga Dube, head of Zimbabwe Defence Industries (ZDI) (an entity which is on the EU and US sanctions lists).
More recent concessions include Sino-Zimbabwe Development (Pvt) Ltd (who are reported to have left their concession, and whose activities are described in more detail in annex 1); Diamond Mining Corporation, a joint venture between the ZMDC and Pure Diam, a company registered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Anjin Investments (Pvt) Ltd.
There are now four companies mining diamonds in earnest in Marange: Mbada, Marange Resources, Diamond Mining Corporation and Anjin. These are established operations using up to date technology, with modern security protocols.
Anjin is ostensibly a joint venture between Matt Bronze (Pvt) Ltd and a Chinese construction company. Anjin is a joint venture between Matt Bronze, a previously unknown Zimbabwean firm, and Anhui Foreign Economic Construction Group (AFEC(G)), a large Chinese construction company.
In Zimbabwe AFEC(G) is building a new National Defence College. The deal is financed by a US$98 million loan from the Chinese state-owned Exim Bank and it has been reported in the press that the terms of the loan include a provision for repayment of the debt using revenues from Anjin.
Global Witness has visited the Zimbabwean company registry to look at the records for Matt Bronze. The directors there are listed as Shelton Wandai Kativhu and Pennelope Rujeko, two individuals who have no public profile in the mining sector. The company was incorporated on April 24 2008, and records its address as the 9th Floor, Travel Centre, Corner of 3rd St and Jason Moyo Avenue, Harare.
Other directors, shareholders and beneficial owners of Matt Bronze are not recorded. The following paragraphs set out the reasoning for our belief that Matt Bronze is a front company for the Zimbabwean Ministry of Defence, military and police.
The company records for Anjin itself are revealing. Anjin’s directors are listed at the registry as Jiang Zhaoyao, Chen Qing, Peng Zheng, Li Zhongqi, Huang Xianjue, all with Chinese nationality. The only Zimbabwean director listed is the company secretary and principal officer, Brigadier-General Charles Tarumbwa.
An affidavit records a resolution making Anjin a joint venture between Matt Bronze, the principal officer of which is Tarumbwa, and AFEC(G). The agreement was signed by Peng on behalf of AFEC(G) and Tarumbwa for Matt Bronze. The company register also states that Anjin’s share capital is made up of US$2 000, consisting of 2 000 ordinary shares, which are shared equally between Tarumbwa and Peng.
So who is this Brigadier-General Tarumbwa, who owns half of Anjin? In 2006, the United Nations listed Tarumbwa as Judge Advocate General at the Ministry of Defence. In 2011, theInternational Committee of the Red Cross records his identity as a military lawyer at the Ministry of Defence. Tarumbwa is listed on the current EU sanctions list because he was “directly involved in the terror campaign waged before and during the elections” in Manicaland and Mutare South.
Tarumbwa played a role in a past attempt to set up a military-owned joint venture. He is also the company secretary for RussZim Mining, a company registered in 2006. Company records for RussZim Mining includes correspondence from ZDI registering RussZim as a joint venture, and appointing retired colonel Dube (head of ZDI) to sign articles of association with RussZim.
The records also include a letter from TK Maphosa, Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Defence at the time of RussZim’s incorporation, advising that a waiver of registration fees has been granted.
Anjin’s executive board is partly controlled by the Zimbabwean police, military, and Ministry of Defence. The Chinese members of the executive board are, namely, Jian Qingde, Jiang Diaru, Tian Shiyue, Jiang Zhaoyao, Li Renfu, Zhang Shibin and Lu Qingxia.
The Zimbabwean executive board members of Anjin are Martin Rushwaya, the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Defence; Oliver Chibage, a commissioner in the Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP); Nonkosi M Ncube, a commissioner in the ZRP; Munyaradzi Machacha, a Zanu PF director of publications; Mabasa Temba Hawadi, a director of Marange Resources, a subsidiary of the ZMDC; Morris Masunungure, a current or retired officer in the Zimbabwe Defence Forces (ZDF); Romeo Daniel Mutsvunguma, a retired colonel in the ZDF alleged by Human Rights Watch to have participated in violence in 2008.
We wrote to Anjin to give them a chance to comment on the make-up of their board. Anjin’s (Chinese) general manager replied that: “Zimbabwean members of the executive board of Anjin Investments (Pvt) Ltd are appointed by Zimbabwean government. Chinese side (sic) pays close attention to the operation management and partner’s co-operation of the company, as for the status and political background of Zimbabwean members, it is not reasonable for us to investigate or research. Please kindly understand.”
At the occasion of the granting of the mining licence Anjin executives met President Robert Mugabe and Minister of Defence Emmerson Mnangagwa. It is possible that the Marange concession was granted to Anjin by the Defence minister Emmerson Mnangagwa, a front-runner to succeed President Mugabe
It has been alleged by an MDC parliamentarian that Anjin’s mining concession was granted by Mnangagwa when the Mines minister was on leave and Mnangagwa was acting Mines minister. Mnangagwa is one the front runners to succeed 88-year-old Mugabe as the leader of Zanu PF, and recently declared that he was “ready to rule”. Global Witness has not been able to independently confirm that it was Mnangagwa who granted the licence, but he was present when Anjin was granted its mining licence.
Global Witness put this allegation to Anjin, who said instead Mugabe granted the concession: “We hereby explain that Anjin Investments (Pvt) Ltd was awarded a concession in the Marange diamond fields, the concession was issued by Ministry of Mines and granted by His Excellency President Mugabe personally by legal procedures.”
— To be continued next week.